English Quiz for CDS Exam: 31 Dec 2019

English Quiz for CDS Exam: 31 Dec 2019


English Quiz for CDS Exam: 31 Dec  2019

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Directions (1-5): Read the following passage carefully and choose the most appropriate answer to the question out of the four alternatives.
India has been home to one of the longest and largest episodes of emigration in the world, from the Second Century BC, when Alexander the Great took back Indians to Central Asia and Europe, to the present times where Indians, moving out on their own volition, form one of the world’s largest populations of emigrants. This population is also diverse in every aspect, from its geographical presence and skill sets to their purposes for migration and migration strategies. A large emigrant population has many benefits for India: the much-discussed international remittances (which touched $80 billion in 2018), and also a positive impact on foreign direct investments, trade and foreign relations. The Indian diaspora also provides much needed philanthropic activities in health and education to help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Of course, they do fund political parties of their choice during the elections.
Since Independence, a steadily increasing number of low-skilled emigrants moved to destinations in West Asia. In order to safeguard their rights and welfare, the government enacted the Emigration Act, 1983. Perhaps it was an Act that was ‘formulated with the mindset of the 19th century, enacted in the 20th century and implemented in the 21st century’.
In the last 35 years, to cite the government, “the nature, pattern, directions, and volume of migration have undergone a paradigm shift”. So, in an effort to update and upgrade this framework, a draft Emigration Bill, 2019 was released. Almost a decade in the making, it aims to move from the regulation of emigration to its management.
What is most positive about the draft Bill is the inclusion of all students and migrant workers within its purview and the abolishment of the two passports (emigration clearance required and emigration clearance not required, or ECR and ECNR) regime based on a person’s educational qualifications. This will significantly improve the collection of migration flow data when compared to the current system, which excludes most migrants leaving India. Despite these developments, most trajectories of migration from India continue to be excluded.

Q1. India has been one of largest episodes of emigration in the world, from…………
(a) 18th century
(b) 19th century
(c) 2nd century
(d) 4th century

Q2. Select the synonym “Volition”
(a) accord
(b) antagonism
(c) aversion
(d) force

Q3. How is the emigrant population diverse?
(a) because of physical attributes
(b) because of low skill set
(c) because of geographical presence and skill sets
(d) because of incompetence

Q4. What are the benefits of large emigrant population for India?
(a) it receives cultural diversity
(b) it receives cheap labour
(c) it receives large international remittances
(d) it receives funding

Q5. What is most positive about the Emigration draft Bill?
(a) it will exert pressure on the other countries.
(b) it will reduce emigration
(c) it will increase emigration
(d) inclusion of all students and migrant workers

Directions (6-10): Read the following passage carefully and choose the most appropriate answer to the question out of the four alternatives.
The Indian Space Research Organisation has crossed a significant milestone with the successful developmental flight of the country’s heaviest Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, the GSLV Mark-III. This is the first time a satellite weighing over 3.1 tonnes has been launched from India to reach the geostationary orbit about 36,000 km from Earth. The Mk-III can launch satellites weighing up to four tonnes, which almost doubles India’s current launch capacity. With communication satellites becoming heavier (up to six tonnes), the capability for larger payloads is vital. This can be done by switching over to electric propulsion for orbit rising and to keep the satellite in the right position and orientation in the orbit through its lifetime (that is, station keeping). The switch-over would reduce the weight of the vehicle as it can do away with nearly two tonnes of propellants and carry heavier satellites. Towards this end, ISRO has started testing electric propulsion in a small way; the South Asia Satellite (GSAT-9) that was launched last month used electric propulsion for station keeping. On Monday, an indigenously developed lithium-ion battery was used for the first time to power the satellite. Another key achievement is the use of an indigenously developed cryogenic stage, which uses liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen; the 2010 GSLV launch using an indigenous cryogenic stage ended in failure. It can now be said without hesitation that India belongs to the elite club of countries that have mastered cryogenic technology. In the December 2014 experimental flight of the GSLV Mk-III, a passive cryogenic stage was used. Though the cryogenic stage was not meant to be ignited, the launch provided invaluable data on aerodynamic behaviour of the vehicle.
The Mark-III will be operational with the success of one more developmental flight, which is set to take place within a year. This will make India self-reliant in launching heavier satellites, bringing down costs substantially. Till now, heavier communication satellites have been launched on Europe’s Ariane rockets; in fact, ISRO will soon be using Ariane rockets to launch two of its heavier satellites. But as has been the case with lighter satellites, it is likely that other countries will soon turn to ISRO for the launch of heavier satellites at a lower cost. With fewer propulsion stages and, therefore, control systems, the Mk-III is far more reliable than the GSLV and the PSLV. Combined with its ability to carry eight to 10 tonnes into a low Earth orbit, the Mk-III can be considered for human-rating certification (to transport humans) once some design changes are made. Compared with the two-member crew capacity of the GSLV, the Mk-III can carry three astronauts and have more space to carry out experiments. The next developmental flight, therefore, will be crucial.

Q6. Which is the first satellite weighing over 3.1 tonnes launched from India?
(a) GSLV Mark-II
(b) GSLV Mark-III
(c) PSLV Mark-III
(d) PSLV Mark-II

Q7. Select the synonym Elite
(a) dregs
(b) inferior
(c) vermin
(d) nonpareil

Q8. How, according to the passage, excess load of newly launched satellite vehicle can be mitigated?
(a)By switching over to electric propulsion for orbit-rising and station keeping.
(b)By replacing the heavier equipments by lighter ones.
(c)By using the cryogenic stage which uses liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.
(d)By proper studies of aerodynamic behaviour of the vehicle.

Q9. Which of the following statements justify the author’s view, “This will make India self-reliant in launching heavier satellites”?
(I)The successful launch of the country’s heaviest Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, the GSLV Mark-III is one of the greatest milestones in the history of ISRO.
(II)ISRO is set to launch yet another developmental flight within a year.
(III) India now belongs to the elite club of countries that have mastered cryogenic technology.
(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(c)Both (II) and (III) are correct
(d)All are correct

Q10. What is India’s current launch capacity?
(a) 2 tonnes
(b) 3 tonnes
(c) 4 tonnes
(d) Can’t figure out

Solution:

S1. Ans (c)
Sol. First sentence of the first paragraph clearly tells you that since 2nd century India has been one of largest episodes of emigration in the world.

S2. Ans (a)
Sol. Volition means the faculty or power of using one's will. (accord)

S3. Ans (c) 
Sol. See paragraph 1 line 4 it clearly states that population is also diverse in every aspect, from its geographical presence and skill sets.

S4. Ans (c) 
Sol. See paragraph 1 line 5th and 6th Emigrants have many benefits for India: the much-discussed international remittances (which touched $80 billion in 2018).

S5. Ans (d)
Sol. See  4th paragraph 1st line says most positive about the draft Bill is the inclusion of all students and migrant workers within its purview.

S6. Ans(b)
Sol. See in paragraph 1 first and second line clearly states GSLV MARK-III is the first satellite to weigh over 3.1 tonnes.

S7. Ans(d)
Sol. Elite means a select group that is superior in terms of ability or qualities to the rest of a group or society. (nonpareil)

S8. Ans. (a)
Sol. Refer the first paragraph, “This can be done by switching over to electric propulsion for orbit rising and to keep the satellite in the right position and orientation in the orbit through its lifetime (that is, station keeping). Hence (a) is the correct option in context of the passage.

S9. Ans. (d)
Sol. Read the passage carefully. Refer “It can now be said without hesitation that India belongs to the elite club of countries that have mastered cryogenic technology.” and, “The Mark-III will be operational with the success of one more developmental flight, which is set to take place within a year. This will make India self-reliant in launching heavier satellites, bringing down costs substantially.” Hence all three statements justify the author’s view regarding the development of ISRO.

S10. Ans(a)
Sol. Read the passage carefully. Refer “The Mk-III can launch satellites weighing up to four tonnes, which almost doubles India’s current launch capacity.”

                                                         

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